Al3+ + 3 ... particles come close to each other to produce larger visible flocs. What is a Coagulation Treatment Process to produce water that is free of chemicals and microorganisms, and is aesthetically pleasing. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used al… However, the SFmechanism has also its CN property moreover than its well-known weighting characteristic. Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out ofsuspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of aclarifying agent. Overview of the Process Image of floc … The chemicals are added together and the process occurs within seconds. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. The second explanation was called sweep flocculation and was the catch all explanation that was used to describe observations that didn’t fit the charge neutralization explanation. Destabilization using Al(III) and Fe(III) Salts coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, water treatment Educational Standards ... sweep flocculation, and inter-particle bridging. The downstream processing of rhamnolipid using synergistic action of sweep-floc coagulation and acidification also puts forward an efficient cost effective strategy with only 2 % loss, an important aspect to be considered in the current industrial market scenario, with market price of rhamnolipid biosurfactants (90 % purity) ranging between 3253$ (Sigma-Aldrich) - 700$ (Natsurfact)/kg. This information can be recompiled into the following chart . Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Thus, pH must be controlled to establish optimum conditions for coagulation. This method allows adjustments in pH, variations in coagulant or polymer dose, alternating mixing speeds, or testing of different coagulant or polymer types, on a small scale in order to predict the functioning of a large scale treatment operation. 59 (No Transcript) 60 This is the key difference between coagulation and flocculation. Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the … Flocculation brings the de-established colloidal particles together and they form large aggregates. Water treatment process is the process in which water from various sources is treated to a water quality or standard that meets its intended use. This process is known as the ‘sweep-floc’ mechanism. diagram the area defined as optimum sweep coagulation is the area for best settling floc, and is defined by the major parameters of alum dose of 20-60 mg/l and a pH of 7.0 to 8.0. The sweep flocs can be described as large aggregates of Al (OH)3/Fe (OH)3 that are formed when Al/Fe salt is added to water. Flocculation takes out suspended colloids. It is found that fractal dimension is lower for sweep-floc coagulation where larger and more irregular aggregates are produced. A … Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. From the numerous reviews of the fundamental theory and mechanisms of coagulation, Floc point, also known as Freon floc point, is used to measure the performance and consistency of refrigeration oils. They are typically used for treatment of wastewater containing colloids (suspended particles) and metal ions. Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes - which improves coagulation and for more robust floc formation 5. Coagulation in Water Treatment However, the SF … Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. KASHIF SHABBIR In contrast, in flocculation, the de-stabilization is brought about by physical techniques such as mixing of the solution, and also sometimes by the addition of polymers. Dated: 8th October, 2017 neutralization or coagulation of colloidal particles in the presence of Al (OH) 3 is termed as enmeshment or sweep floc. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Colloid Entrapment Occurs when large dosages of coagulant are added which precipitate as hydrous metal oxides. 1. This is known as ‘sweep-floc’ coagulation (Packham, 1965). AND The jar test is a common laboratory procedure used to determine the optimum operating conditions for water or wastewater treatment. Also we get stoichiometry of coagulation. dosages may approach those of the sweep floc range, probably dont get sweep floc because much of the coagulant is used by the colloids. For this reason, fluid shear is the primary mechanism of floc formation, making the mechanical mixing of the water important in flocculation. Flocculants, or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents), are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. Jar Testing Apparatus Larger floc settle and filter easier than small pin-point or carry-over floc. The coagulation/flocculation (C/F) processes are mainly due to charge neutralisation (CN) and sweepflocculation (SF) mechanisms. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Zone 4 coagulation, also known as sweep floc, was used for these experiments. In coagulation, the forces responsible for keeping the particles apart after they contact, are reduced. Coagulation and Floculation - Free download as Powerpoint ... enmesh the colloids in a “sweep floc”. Dissolved organic can be removed by adsorption on aluminum precipitation (Benschoten, 1990). this blog include Treatment process and Equipment for … This is the most popular mode of coagulation used in both wastewater and 1. Sweep floc occurs when coagulant is added past the point of solubility, creating insoluble “flocs” that aggregate. Jar Test Procedure, Destabilization using Al(III) and Fe(III) Salts. Water supply system - Water supply system - Coagulation and flocculation: Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. The process is basically a combination of destabilisation (charge neutralisation) and transport (physical entrainment) (Amirtharajah, 1990). The action differs fromprecipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution. 4. Other particles in the water are swept up into the coagulant flocs and are removed during sedimentation. Larger floc does not settle as well and is more subject to breakup in the flocculation basin. Disinfection for killing bacteria viruses and other pathogens. When the mechanism is charge neutralization, the detention time needed may be one second or less. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Both these techniques are employed in the treatment of water. The basis for this domain is not only the kinetics of coagulation reactions but also … 2.1.1 Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation, a process of agglomerating colloidal particles, using chemicals such as aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, etc. • The floc will then settle out in the sedimentation basin, with remaining floc being removed in the filter. Sedimentation, flotation and/or filtration systems are then used to separate the floc (see the section sedimentation, filtration, as well as flocculators – settlin… • The best floc size is 0.1 to 3 mm. A rpm gage at the top-center of the device allows for the uniform control of the mixing speed in all of the containers. Mechanical flocculators can be installed both horizontally and vertically. FLOCCULATION [1] Agglomeration (except in polymer science) We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. After flash mix, the water heads to the flocculation basins to allow floc particles to gather in size. Coagulation and flocculation are well-known techniques within wastewater treatment. Since the beginning, the objective of water treatment has not changed i.e. Submitted to: Dr. Atif Mustafa COAGULATION Examples of inorganic coagulants are as below: Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) – One of the most commonly used water treatment chemicals in the world. However, a downside of metal hydroxide precipitate sweep-floc is that they add to the overall sludge volume that must be treated and removed. Thus, we can understand the process of coagulation and flocculation with the help of examples derived from water treatment techniques. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. Jar Test One container acts as a control while the operating conditions can be varied among the remaining five containers. Physico Chemical Processes (EN 525) 1 The jar testing apparatus consists of six paddles which stir the contents of six 1 liter containers. 3) ENMESHMENT IN A PRECIPITATE (Sweep-FlocCoagulation) When a metal salt (e.gAl2(SO 4)3or FeCl3) is added to water in precipitatatesof metal hydroxides [e.g., Al(OH) , Coagulation& Flocculation: Destabilization of Colloids concentrations sufficiently high 3 Fe(OH)3] willform colloidalparticlescan be enmeshed (entrapped) in the precipitatesandsettle Sometime high molecular weight polymers are also added known as coagulant aids. Roll No. Flocculation (in polymer science): When a sol is colloidally unstable (I.e., the rate of aggregation is not negligible) then the formation of aggregates is called flocculation or coagulation. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. 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